Version: 2.5.0

Storm HBase Integration

Storm/Trident integration for Apache HBase


The main API for interacting with HBase is the org.apache.storm.hbase.bolt.mapper.HBaseMapper interface:

public interface HBaseMapper extends Serializable {
    byte[] rowKey(Tuple tuple);

    ColumnList columns(Tuple tuple);

The rowKey() method is straightforward: given a Storm tuple, return a byte array representing the row key.

The columns() method defines what will be written to an HBase row. The ColumnList class allows you to add both standard HBase columns as well as HBase counter columns.

To add a standard column, use one of the addColumn() methods:

ColumnList cols = new ColumnList();
cols.addColumn(this.columnFamily, field.getBytes(), toBytes(tuple.getValueByField(field)));

To add a counter column, use one of the addCounter() methods:

ColumnList cols = new ColumnList();
cols.addCounter(this.columnFamily, field.getBytes(), toLong(tuple.getValueByField(field)));

When the remote HBase is security enabled, a kerberos keytab and the corresponding principal name need to be provided for the storm-hbase connector. Specifically, the Config object passed into the topology should contain {(“storm.keytab.file”, “$keytab”), ("storm.kerberos.principal", “$principal”)}. Example:

Config config = new Config();
config.put("storm.keytab.file", "$keytab");
config.put("storm.kerberos.principal", "$principal");
StormSubmitter.submitTopology("$topologyName", config, builder.createTopology());

Working with Secure HBASE using delegation tokens.

If your topology is going to interact with secure HBase, your bolts/states needs to be authenticated by HBase. The approach described above requires that all potential worker hosts have "storm.keytab.file" on them. If you have multiple topologies on a cluster , each with different hbase user, you will have to create multiple keytabs and distribute it to all workers. Instead of doing that you could use the following approach:

Your administrator can configure nimbus to automatically get delegation tokens on behalf of the topology submitter user. The nimbus should be started with following configurations:

nimbus.autocredential.plugins.classes : [""] 
nimbus.credential.renewers.classes : [""] 
hbase.keytab.file: "/path/to/keytab/on/nimbus" (This is the keytab of hbase super user that can impersonate other users.)
hbase.kerberos.principal: ""
nimbus.credential.renewers.freq.secs : 518400 (6 days, hbase tokens by default expire every 7 days and can not be renewed,  if you have custom settings for hbase.auth.token.max.lifetime in hbase-site.xml than you should ensure this value is atleast 1 hour less then that.)

Your topology configuration should have: :[""]

If nimbus did not have the above configuration you need to add it and then restart it. Ensure the hbase configuration files(core-site.xml, hdfs-site.xml and hbase-site.xml) and the storm-hbase jar with all the dependencies is present in nimbus's classpath.

As an alternative to adding the configuration files (core-site.xml, hdfs-site.xml and hbase-site.xml) to the classpath, you could specify the configurations as a part of the topology configuration. E.g. in you custom storm.yaml (or -c option while submitting the topology),

hbaseCredentialsConfigKeys : ["cluster1", "cluster2"] (the hbase clusters you want to fetch the tokens from)
"cluster1": {"config1": "value1", "config2": "value2", ... } (A map of config key-values specific to cluster1)
"cluster2": {"config1": "value1", "hbase.keytab.file": "/path/to/keytab/for/cluster2/on/nimubs", "hbase.kerberos.principal": ""} (here along with other configs, we have custom keytab and principal for "cluster2" which will override the keytab/principal specified at topology level)

Instead of specifying key values you may also directly specify the resource files for e.g.,

"cluster1": {"resources": ["/path/to/core-site1.xml", "/path/to/hbase-site1.xml"]}
"cluster2": {"resources": ["/path/to/core-site2.xml", "/path/to/hbase-site2.xml"]}

Storm will download the tokens separately for each of the clusters and populate it into the subject and also renew the tokens periodically. This way it would be possible to run multiple bolts connecting to separate HBase cluster within the same topology.

Nimbus will use the keytab and principal specified in the config to authenticate with HBase. From then on for every topology submission, nimbus will impersonate the topology submitter user and acquire delegation tokens on behalf of the topology submitter user. If topology was started with set to AutoHBase, nimbus will push the delegation tokens to all the workers for your topology and the hbase bolt/state will authenticate with these tokens.

As nimbus is impersonating topology submitter user, you need to ensure the user specified in hbase.kerberos.principal has permissions to acquire tokens on behalf of other users. To achieve this you need to follow configuration directions listed on this link

You can read about setting up secure HBase here:


storm-hbase includes a general purpose HBaseMapper implementation called SimpleHBaseMapper that can map Storm tuples to both regular HBase columns as well as counter columns.

To use SimpleHBaseMapper, you simply tell it which fields to map to which types of columns.

The following code create a SimpleHBaseMapper instance that:

  1. Uses the word tuple value as a row key.
  2. Adds a standard HBase column for the tuple field word.
  3. Adds an HBase counter column for the tuple field count.
  4. Writes values to the cf column family.
SimpleHBaseMapper mapper = new SimpleHBaseMapper() 
        .withColumnFields(new Fields("word"))
        .withCounterFields(new Fields("count"))


To use the HBaseBolt, construct it with the name of the table to write to, an a HBaseMapper implementation:

HBaseBolt hbase = new HBaseBolt("WordCount", mapper);

HBaseBolt params

|Arg |Description | Type | Default | |--- |--- |--- |writeToWAL | To turn Durability SYNC_WAL or SKIP_WAL | Boolean (Optional) | True | |configKey | Any Hbase related configs | Map (Optional) | | |batchSize | Max no.of Tuples batched together to write to HBase | Int (Optional) | 15000 | |flushIntervalSecs| (In seconds) If > 0 HBase Bolt will periodically flush transaction batches. Enabling this is recommended to avoid tuple timeouts while waiting for a batch to fill up. | Int (Optional) | 0 |

The HBaseBolt will delegate to the mapper instance to figure out how to persist tuple data to HBase.


This class allows you to transform the HBase lookup result into storm Values that will be emitted by the HBaseLookupBolt.

public interface HBaseValueMapper extends Serializable {
    public List<Values> toTuples(Result result) throws Exception;
    void declareOutputFields(OutputFieldsDeclarer declarer);

The toTuples method takes in a HBase Result instance and expects a List of Values instant. Each of the value returned by this function will be emitted by the HBaseLookupBolt.

The declareOutputFields should be used to declare the outputFields of the HBaseLookupBolt.

There is an example implementation in examples/storm-hbase-examples/src/main/java directory.


This class allows you to specify the projection criteria for your HBase Get function. This is optional parameter for the lookupBolt and if you do not specify this instance all the columns will be returned by HBaseLookupBolt.

public class HBaseProjectionCriteria implements Serializable {
    public HBaseProjectionCriteria addColumnFamily(String columnFamily);
    public HBaseProjectionCriteria addColumn(ColumnMetaData column);

addColumnFamily takes in columnFamily. Setting this parameter means all columns for this family will be included in the projection.

addColumn takes in a columnMetaData instance. Setting this parameter means only this column from the column familty will be part of your projection. The following code creates a projectionCriteria which specifies a projection criteria that:

  1. includes count column from column family cf.
  2. includes all columns from column family cf2.
HBaseProjectionCriteria projectionCriteria = new HBaseProjectionCriteria()
    .addColumn(new HBaseProjectionCriteria.ColumnMetaData("cf", "count"))


To use the HBaseLookupBolt, Construct it with the name of the table to write to, an implementation of HBaseMapper and an implementation of HBaseRowToStormValueMapper. You can optionally specify a HBaseProjectionCriteria.

The HBaseLookupBolt will use the mapper to get rowKey to lookup for. It will use the HBaseProjectionCriteria to figure out which columns to include in the result and it will leverage the HBaseRowToStormValueMapper to get the values to be emitted by the bolt.

In addition, the HBaseLookupBolt supports bolt-side HBase result caching using an in-memory LRU cache using Caffeine. To enable caching:

hbase.cache.enable - to enable caching (default false)

hbase.cache.ttl.seconds - set time to live for LRU cache in seconds (default 300)

hbase.cache.size - set size of the cache (default 1000)

You can look at an example topology under examples/storm-hbase-examples/src/main/java.

Example: Persistent Word Count

A runnable example can be found in the examples/storm-hbase-examples/src/main/java directory.


The following steps assume you are running HBase locally, or there is an hbase-site.xml on the classpath pointing to your HBase cluster.

Use the hbase shell command to create the schema:

> create 'WordCount', 'cf'


Run the org.apache.storm.hbase.topology.PersistenWordCount class (it will run the topology for 10 seconds, then exit).

After (or while) the word count topology is running, run the org.apache.storm.hbase.topology.WordCountClient class to view the counter values stored in HBase. You should see something like to following:

Word: 'apple', Count: 6867
Word: 'orange', Count: 6645
Word: 'pineapple', Count: 6954
Word: 'banana', Count: 6787
Word: 'watermelon', Count: 6806

For reference, the sample topology is listed below:

public class PersistentWordCount {
    private static final String WORD_SPOUT = "WORD_SPOUT";
    private static final String COUNT_BOLT = "COUNT_BOLT";
    private static final String HBASE_BOLT = "HBASE_BOLT";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        Config config = new Config();

        Map<String, Object> hbConf = new HashMap<String, Object>();
        if(args.length > 0){
            hbConf.put("hbase.rootdir", args[0]);
        config.put("hbase.conf", hbConf);

        WordSpout spout = new WordSpout();
        WordCounter bolt = new WordCounter();

        SimpleHBaseMapper mapper = new SimpleHBaseMapper()
                .withColumnFields(new Fields("word"))
                .withCounterFields(new Fields("count"))

        HBaseBolt hbase = new HBaseBolt("WordCount", mapper)

        // wordSpout ==> countBolt ==> HBaseBolt
        TopologyBuilder builder = new TopologyBuilder();

        builder.setSpout(WORD_SPOUT, spout, 1);
        builder.setBolt(COUNT_BOLT, bolt, 1).shuffleGrouping(WORD_SPOUT);
        builder.setBolt(HBASE_BOLT, hbase, 1).fieldsGrouping(COUNT_BOLT, new Fields("word"));

        String topoName = "test";
        if (args.length > 1) {
            topoName = args[1];
        if (args.length == 4) {
            System.out.println("hdfs url: " + args[0] + ", keytab file: " + args[2] + 
                ", principal name: " + args[3] + ", toplogy name: " + topoName);
            hbConf.put(HBaseSecurityUtil.STORM_KEYTAB_FILE_KEY, args[2]);
            hbConf.put(HBaseSecurityUtil.STORM_USER_NAME_KEY, args[3]);
        } else if (args.length == 3 || args.length > 4) {
            System.out.println("Usage: PersistentWordCount <hbase.rootdir> [topology name] [keytab file] [principal name]");
        StormSubmitter.submitTopology(topoName, config, builder.createTopology());